CalEnviroScreen; Biomonitoring, Environmental justice; Health impact assessment, Risk assessment
Why is this useful?
Solomon GM, Morello-Frosch R, Zeise L, Faust JB. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2016;37:83-96. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021807. Epub 2016 Jan 6. PMID: 26735429.
Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.
Gina M. Solomon,1 Rachel Morello-Frosch,2 Lauren Zeise,3 and John B. Faust3