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Asian Americans; Environmental Justice; Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs)

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Sara Grineskia, Danielle Xiaodan Moralesb, Timothy Collinsc , Estefania Hernandezb, Ana Fuentesb


This study investigated disparities in residential exposure to carcinogenic air pollutants among Asian Americans, including Asian ancestry subgroups, in four US metro areas with high proportions of Asians, i.e., Honolulu, Los Angeles, San Francisco Bay Area, and Seattle. Generalized estimating equations adjusting for socioeconomic status, population density and clustering show that a greater proportion of Asian Americans in census tracts was associated with significantly greater health risk in all four metro areas. Intracategorical disparities were uncovered for Asian ancestry. A greater proportion Korean was positively associated with risk in four metro areas; greater proportion Chinese and Filipino were positively associated with risk in three of the four metro areas. While Asian Americans are infrequently examined in environmental justice research, these results demonstrate that Asian Americans experience substantial distributional environmental injustices in these four metro areas and that ancestry is an important dimension of intracategorical complexity.


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